Archives of Current Research International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Archives of Current Research International (ISSN: 2454-7077)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ACRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Archives of Current Research International 2454-7077 Copper, Magnesium and Selenium Levels in Serum Samples of Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus <p><strong>Background:</strong> Trace elements are known to enhance the complete function of the immune system; avert uncontrolled expression and synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Copper, magnesium, selenium in male individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Prospective cohort study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Medical outpatient clinic and Chemical Pathology Laboratory both of Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, between January and December 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Forty male individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and forty apparently healthy male individuals within the age range of 45 - 75 years were recruited for this study. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), trace elements (copper, magnesium and selenium) was measured at six months interval.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean values of Cu, Mg, Se were significantly lower at pre-treatment compared to apparently healthy control values (<em>18</em>.<em>40</em> <em>+/- 5.25</em> vs <em>95</em>.<em>16</em> <em>+/- 30.32</em> µg/dl, <em>1</em>.<em>23</em><em>+/- 0.16</em> vs <em>1</em>.<em>51</em><em>+/- 0.09 </em>mg/dl and <em>268</em>.<em>47</em><em>+/-54.32 </em>vs <em>349</em>.<em>63</em><em>+/-</em> <em>32</em>.<em>95</em> µg/l respectively) (p= &lt;0.001, &lt;0.001 and &lt;0.001 respectively). At 6 month into treatment in comparison to pre-treatment values, there were significant decreases in HbA1c and Mg (<em>5</em>.<em>76</em><em>+/-0.50</em> vs <em>9</em>.<em>74</em><em>+/-1.25 </em>%, <em>0</em>.<em>26</em><em>+/-0.02</em> vs <em>1</em>.<em>23</em><em>+/-0.16 </em>mg/dl respectively) (p= &lt;0.001, &lt;0.001 respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The levels of copper and magnesium were lower at pre-treatment, while magnesium was lowest at 6 month into treatment. In this study there is continuous increase in serum selenium levels during the treatment period.</p> Ifeanyichukwu Martin Ositadinma Ngwu Amauche Martina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-18 2020-02-18 1 5 10.9734/acri/2020/v20i130166 A Robust Predictive Modelling of Nigeria’s Population Growth Rate Using Partial Least Square Regression <p>Nigeria, a developing nation is experiencing the overwhelming effects of her exponentially ever-increasing population. The resultant effects are clearly evident for all stakeholders to see and feel. Researches have been carried out to study, explain and recommend solutions to this lurking epidemic. But unfortunately, numerous researchers have failed to address key issues in regression modelling as used in their studies, some of such issues are; using Wald’s statistic as a variable selection tool rather than the much consensus purposeful variable selection techniques, ignoring the existence of multicollinearity and also missing data. These issues are enough to render the findings in most studies reviewed inadequate, invalid and misleading to be used as a policy-making tool. In this study, the aim is to build a robust predictive model of the Nigeria population growth rate taking into account the aforementioned issues in regression modelling hitherto ignored by some researchers who had used almost this same variables used in this current study. As it would have been expected, death rate, maternal deaths and infant deaths all had negative signs indicating an opposing relationship between these variables and Nigeria population growth rate. The assessment carried out showed that our model has high predictive power, hence, could be used to predict future Nigeria’s population growth rate.</p> Bright C. Offorha Chukwudike C. Nwokike Okezie, Uche-Ikonne Obubu Maxwell Fidelia C. Onwunmere Chikezie Uche-Ikonne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-20 2020-02-20 6 12 10.9734/acri/2020/v20i130167 Childhood Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Two Tertiary Hospitals in South-South Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>As in adults, there is a high burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in children and this is often associated with a high mortality rate, however, little emphasis is being paid to NCDs in children.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong> The objective of this study was to determine the burden, pattern and mortality associated with NCD among children admitted into the Paediatric wards of two tertiary centres in South-South Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a retrospective study carried out in two tertiary hospitals in South-South Nigeria. Medical/admission records of all patients with Non communicable diseases (NCDs) were retrieved. Information obtained included patient's age, sex, date of admission, final diagnosis, date of discharge and hospital outcome. Total number of admissions and deaths within the study period were also obtained. The diagnoses were classified according to pathologic and systematic derangement. Obtained data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and presented in frequency tables and charts while chi square and Fischers exact test were used to compare categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> A total of 4,167 patients were hospitalized over the study period, out of which 897 had NCDs giving a prevalence rate of 21.52%. Of the NCDs, 570 (63.55%) were males while 327 (36.45%) were females giving a male female ratio of 1.74:1. Haematology, Oncology (Cancers), Nephrology, Neurology and Cardiology disorders were the five common NCDs and constituted about three quatre (74.47%) of all NCDs. Among the five common NCDs, haematology, oncology and nephrology disorders were commoner in the older children while cardiac, and neurologic disorders were more prevalent in younger children. This distribution was not statistically significant (X<sup>2</sup> = 1.67, p = 0.9800). Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) was the prevalent Haematological disease constituting 176 (95.1%) of all haematological cases. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Nephrotic syndrome, Seizure disorder and Ventricular septal defect were the prevalent cancers, Nephrology, neurology and cardiac disorders and constituted 50 (27.6%), 39 (28.7%), 33 (40.74%), 21 (25.0), of the diseases respectively.&nbsp; A total of 112 deaths occurred in the Paediatric wards over the study period, 35 (31.25%) of these deaths were caused by NCDs and patients with Cancers constituted 60% (21/35) of all deaths. More deaths occurred among the adolescents; however, this was not statistically significant. (chi square = 21.99, p=0.1081).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> There is a high burden and high mortality of NCDs in children in our environment. The common pattern of NCDs were Haematology, Oncology (Cancers), Nephrology, Neurology and cardiology diseases. Improved health education, early cancer screening and availability of cancer and prenatal diagnosis of SCA screening tools, premarital genotype counselling and screening and legislation to support families with NCDs is advocated.</p> Nsirimobu I. Paul Chika O. Duru ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-28 2020-02-28 13 23 10.9734/acri/2020/v20i130168